• HCQ is effective for COVID-19. The probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 195 studies to date is estimated to be 1 in 1 quadrillion (p
• Early treatment is most successful, with 100% of studies reporting a positive effect and an estimated reduction of 67% in the effect measured (death, hospitalization, etc.) using a random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.33 [0.25-0.43].
• 91% of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for early, PrEP, or PEP treatment report positive effects, the probability of this happening for an ineffective treatment is 0.0059.
• There is evidence of bias towards publishing negative results. 88% of prospective studies report positive effects, and only 75% of retrospective studies do.
• Studies from North America are 4.0 times more likely to report negative results than studies from the rest of the world combined, p
|Total||195 studies||3,074 authors||166,999 patients|
|Positive effects||152 studies||2,394 authors||123,307 patients|
|Early treatment ||67% improvement ||RR 0.33 [0.25-0.43] |
|Late treatment ||25% improvement ||RR 0.75 [0.69-0.81] |
Covid Analysis et al., 1/24/2021, preprint, 1 author.