COVID-19 studies for: C19 studies:  HC QHC Q IvermectinIVM Vitamin DVitamin D ZincZn REGN-COV2REGN LY-CoVLY RemdesivirRMD
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For vitamin D, most PrEP results refer to vitamin D sufficiency which does not distinguish between sufficiency obtained via supplementation or other methods. Confounding factors may be significant. Currently, six of these studies analyze treatment of COVID-19 with vitamin D.
 
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11/19
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Jain et al., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓95.4%, p<0.0001 Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers
Prospective study of 91 asymptomatic and 63 ICU patients showing significantly higher vitamin D deficiency in the ICU patients (97% vs. 33%).
11/17
Inconc.
INCONC.
Late
Murai et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20232397 (Preprint)
Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation vs Placebo on Hospital Length of Stay in Patients with Severe COVID-19: A Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial
Very late stage (87% on oxygen) vitamin D supplementation RCT not showing any significant differences. Calcifediol, which avoids several days delay in conversion, may be more successful, especially with this very late stage usage.
11/13
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Luo et al., The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa332 (Peer Reviewed)
progression, ↓63.0%, p=0.01 Vitamin D Deficiency Is Inversely Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People
Retrospective 335 patients in China compared to 560 matched controls showing significanlty lower risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D sufficiency (>=30 nmol/L) OR 0.37, p = 0.014.
11/12
Positive
POSITIVE
Meta
Jungreis et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.08.20222638 (Preprint)
Mathematical analysis of Córdoba calcifediol trial suggests strong role for Vitamin D in reducing ICU admissions of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Analysis of Castillo et al. confirming efficacy of calcifediol treatment. Authors find that issues related to imperfect blinding and comorbidities can not explain the result found. See [1] for a response to issues raised on this analysis.
11/12
Positive
POSITIVE
Late
Rastogi et al., Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065 (Peer Reviewed)
viral+, ↓52.6%, p=0.02 Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: a randomised, placebo-controlled, study (SHADE study)
53% reduction in PCR+ with high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation. RCT with 16 treatment patients and 24 control patients. Relative risk of PCR+ at 2 weeks with treatment, RR 0.47, p=0.18 25(OH)D levels at day 14 were 52 ng/ml vs. 15..
11/9
Inconc.
INCONC.
PrEP
Walk et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.07.20227512 (Preprint)
Vitamin D - contrary to vitamin K - does not associate with clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Small retrospective study of 135 patients not finding a significant difference in vitamin D status. Patients with good outcomes had a median og 45.0 nmol/L versus 37.7 nmol/L for bad outcomes, p = 0.85. Authors found that vitamin D suffi..
11/2
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Annweiler et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113377 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓93.0%, p=0.02 Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study
Retrospective study finding that regular bolus vitamin D supplementation was associated with less severe COVID-19 and better survival in frail elderly. For those receiving regular supplementation: Adjusted mortality hazard ratio with su..
10/31
Review
REVIEW
Review
Mercola et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:11, 3361, doi:10.3390/nu12113361 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity
Review of vitamin D and COVID-19 concluding that the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window.
10/29
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Walrand, W., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.28.20221176 (Preprint)
The unexpected spectacular 2020 October COVID-19 boost in European countries correlated with the latitude, but not with the temperature
Analysis of the increase in COVID-19 cases in European countries, showing no correlation between with temperature, but a significant correlation with country latitude. Since UV radiation decreases earlier for higher latitudes, this suppo..
10/21
Review
REVIEW
N/A
Basha et al., Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, doi:10.1016/j.cegh.2020.10.005 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Is the shielding effect of cholecalciferol in SARS CoV-2 infection dependable? An evidence based unraveling
Review of vitamin D for COVID-19, concluding that the available evidence is very suggestive of protective and preventive effect of vitamin D. Authors note that strict lockdown (longer time indoors and home quarantine) may increase the r..
10/20
Positive
POSITIVE
Late
Ling et el., (Preprint)
death, ↓52.0%, p=0.0002 Vitamin D Treatment Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study
Retrospective 986 hospitalized patients in the UK, finding vitamin D treatment was associated with a reduced risk of mortality, regardless of baseline vitamin D status. Vitamin D status (replete/insufficient/deficient) was not associate..
10/13
Positive
POSITIVE
Early, PrEP
Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓68.4%, p=0.02 Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study
Vitamin D3 supplementation during or just before COVID-19 was associated with 68% lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 in frail elderly. Retrospective 66 French nursing home residents, mean age 87.7, 9 control patients, and 57 that r..
9/25
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Maghbooli et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓52.0%, p=0.07 Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection
Retrospective 235 hospitalized patients showing a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity. For patients over 40, mortality was 9.7% with 25(OH)D levels >30ng/mL, versus 20% for <30ng/mL. ..
9/17
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Kaufman et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓53.0%, p<0.001 SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
Analysis of 191,779 patients in the US finding COVID-19 positivity strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels. The relationship persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, gender, and age ranges. COVID-19 adjuste..
9/10
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Radujkovic et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:9, 2757, doi:10.3390/nu12092757 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓93.2%, p=0.001 Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients
Observational study 185 patients in Germany shows an association between vitamin D status and severity and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratio of vitamin D sufficiency for combined mechanical ventilation and death was HR 0.16, p < 0.001, and..
9/10
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Israel et al., medRxiv, doi:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.04.20188268v1 (Preprint)
The link between vitamin D deficiency and Covid-19 in a large population
Large observational population study showing a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19.
8/29
Positive
POSITIVE
Late
Castillo et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 203, October 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓94.2%, p=0.001 Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study
RCT on calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing significantly reduced intensive care unit admissions. All patients received standard care including HC Q+AZ. Significant..
8/15
Positive
POSITIVE
Early
Espitia-Hernandez et al., Biomedical Research, 31:5 (Peer Reviewed)
viral+, ↓98.2%, p<0.0001 Effects of Ivermectin-azithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
Small study with 28 patients treated with ivermectin + AZ + cholecalciferol and 7 control patients. All treated patients were PCR- at day 10 while all control patients remained PCR+. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days in the treatm..
8/9
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Carpagnano et al., J. Endocrinol. Invest., 2020, Aug 9, 1-7, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓90.0%, p=0.02 Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19
Retrospective study 42 patients with acute respiratory failure, 81% with low vitamin D levels. After 10 days, patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a 50% probability of dying, while those with vitamin D ≥ 10 ng/mL had a 5% mortal..
7/23
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Merzon et al., The FEBS Journal, doi:doi.org/10.1111/febs.15495 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓28.4%, p<0.001 Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID‐19 infection: an Israeli population‐based study
Analysis of 7,807 patients finding that low vitamin D levels are correlated with increased risk of cases and hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratio OR for sufficient vitamin D level for cases 0.69, p < 0.001, and for hospitalization 0.51, p..
7/23
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Lansiaux et al., Spat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/j.sste.2020.100362 (Peer Reviewed)
Analysis of COVID-19 mortality rate and sunlight exposure finding a correlation that suggests a protective effect of sunlight exposure. In continental metropolitan France, average annual sunlight hours were found to be significantly cor..
7/17
Meta
META
PrEP
Jolliffe et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20152728 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials
Meta analysis of 40 RCTs showing that vitamin D supplementation is safe and reduced risk of acute respiratory infections, odds ratio OR 0.89 [0.81-0.98].
6/30
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Faul et al., Irish Medical Journal, 113:5, 84. (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓69.0%, p=0.03 Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Analysis of 33 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure requiring FiO2 greater than 0.4. Intubation hazard ratio for vitamin D sufficiency HR 0.31, p = 0.03.
6/30
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Panagiotou et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.20136903 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓52.0%, p=0.02 Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity: results of a local audit of practice
Retrospective analysis 134 hospitalized patients. 19% of ICU patients had 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L vs. 39.1% of non-ICU patients, p=0.02
6/22
In Vitro
IN VITRO
N/A
Mok et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.162396 (Preprint)
Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is a promising candidate for COVID-19 prophylaxis
In Vitro study showing that the active form of Vitamin D, calcitriol, exhibits significant potent activity against SARS-CoV-2.
6/10
Positive
POSITIVE
Late
Tan et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017 (Peer Reviewed)
oxygen, ↓80.5%, p=0.04 Cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination Vitamin D, Magnesium and Vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients
Observational study of 43 patients >= 50 years old, with 17 patients receiving vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB); and 26 control patients, showing a significantly lower need for oxygen therapy and ICU admission with treatment. ..
4/28
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
De Smet et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.20079376 (Preprint)
cases, ↓23.0%, p=0.0005 Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics
Retrospective 186 hospitalized patients in Belguim, showing that more than 40% of the adult population is vitamin D deficient, and that vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the risk for hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia and predis..
4/28
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Lau et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838 (Preprint)
ICU, ↓45.0%, p=0.29 Vitamin D Insufficiency is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19
Analysis of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 13 requiring ICU admission. 84.6% of the ICU patients had low vitamin D levels versus 57.1% of the non-ICU patients.
4/2
Review
REVIEW
Review
Grant et al., Nutrients, 12:4, 988, doi:10.3390/nu12040988 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths
Review of the evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce COVID-19 risk.
2017
Meta
META
N/A
Martineau et al., BMJ 2017, 356, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
cases, ↓7.3%, p=0.003 Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data
Meta analysis of 25 RCTs showing vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most be..
2013
Meta
META
N/A
Bergman et al., PLoS One, 2013, 8:6, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065835 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Meta analysis of 11 placebo-controlled studies of 5660 patients. Vitamin D showed a protective effect against RTI (OR 0.64 [0.49-0.84]). The protective effect was larger in studies using once-daily dosing compared to bolus doses (OR = 0...
2012
Review
REVIEW
N/A
Palacios et al., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., 2014, 144PA, 138–145, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?
Review showing vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide in all age groups.
2012
Inconc.
INCONC.
Related
Mitchell et al., Endocr Pract., 2012, 18:6, 914–923, doi:10.4158/EP12072.OR (Peer Reviewed) (Related)
Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults
Study of 634 healthy volunteers showing 64% had 25(OH)D ≤ 30 ng/mL. Gender, ethnicity, and multivitamin use were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels.
2010
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Urashima et al., Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010, 91:5, 1255-60, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.29094 (Peer Reviewed)
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren
RCT for vitamin D supplementation and seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren, showing 10.8% incidence in children in the vitamin D3 group compared with 18.6% in the placebo group, relative risk RR 0.58 [0.34-0.99], p = 0.04. The reductio..
2006
Review
REVIEW
N/A
Cannell et al., Epidemiol Infect., 2006, 134:6. 1129-40, doi:10.1017/S0950268806007175 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Epidemic influenza and vitamin D
Review article on the mechanisms of action and seasonality of vitamin D levels, concluding that varying vitamin D levels may be the reason for the seasonality of epidemic influenza.


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