COVID-19 studies for: C19 studies:  HC QHC Q Vitamin DVitamin D IvermectinIVM LY-CoVLY REGN-COV2REGN RemdesivirRMD
For vitamin D, PrEP results refer to vitamin D sufficiency which does not distinguish between sufficiency obtained via supplementation or other methods. Confounding factors may be significant. Currently, only three studies analyze treatment of COVID-19 with vitamin D. One of these is in combination with magnesium and vitamin B12, while another uses calcifediol, which avoids the delay in conversion from cholecalciferol which may be several days.
 
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10/13
Positive
POSITIVE
Early, PrEP
Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓68.4%, p=0.02 Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study
Vitamin D3 supplementation during or just before COVID-19 was associated with 68% lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 in frail elderly. Retrospective 66 French nursing home residents, mean age 87.7, 9 control patients, and 57 that r..
9/25
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Maghbooli et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓52.0%, p=0.07 Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection
Retrospective 235 hospitalized patients showing a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity. For patients over 40, mortality was 9.7% with 25(OH)D levels >30ng/mL, versus 20% for <30ng/mL. ..
9/17
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Kaufman et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓53.0%, p<0.001 SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
Analysis of 191,779 patients in the US finding COVID-19 positivity strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels. The relationship persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, gender, and age ranges. COVID-19 adjuste..
9/10
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Radujkovic et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:9, 2757, doi:10.3390/nu12092757 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓93.2%, p=0.001 Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients
Observational study 185 patients in Germany shows an association between vitamin D status and severity and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratio of vitamin D sufficiency for combined mechanical ventilation and death was HR 0.16, p < 0.001, and..
9/10
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Israel et al., medRxiv, doi:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.04.20188268v1 (Peer Reviewed)
The link between vitamin D deficiency and Covid-19 in a large population
Large observational population study showing a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19.
8/29
Positive
POSITIVE
Late
Castillo et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 203, October 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓94.2%, p=0.001 Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study
RCT on calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing significantly reduced intensive care unit admissions. All patients received standard care including HC Q+AZ. Significant..
8/9
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Carpagnano et al., J. Endocrinol. Invest., 2020, Aug 9, 1-7, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓90.0%, p=0.02 Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19
Retrospective study 42 patients with acute respiratory failure, 81% with low vitamin D levels. After 10 days, patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a 50% probability of dying, while those with vitamin D ≥ 10 ng/mL had a 5% mortal..
7/23
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Merzon et al., The FEBS Journal, doi:doi.org/10.1111/febs.15495 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓28.4%, p<0.001 Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID‐19 infection: an Israeli population‐based study
Analysis of 7,807 patients finding that low vitamin D levels are correlated with increased risk of cases and hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratio OR for sufficient vitamin D level for cases 0.69, p < 0.001, and for hospitalization 0.51, p..
7/17
Meta
META
PrEP
Jolliffe et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20152728 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials
Meta analysis of 40 RCTs showing that vitamin D supplementation is safe and reduced risk of acute respiratory infections, odds ratio OR 0.89 [0.81-0.98].
6/30
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Faul et al., Irish Medical Journal, 113:5, 84. (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓69.0%, p=0.03 Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Analysis of 33 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure requiring FiO2 greater than 0.4. Intubation hazard ratio for vitamin D sufficiency HR 0.31, p = 0.03.
6/30
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Panagiotou et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.20136903 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓52.0%, p=0.02 Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity: results of a local audit of practice
Retrospective analysis 134 hospitalized patients. 19% of ICU patients had 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L vs. 39.1% of non-ICU patients, p=0.02
6/22
In Vitro
IN VITRO
N/A
Mok et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.162396 (Preprint)
Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is a promising candidate for COVID-19 prophylaxis
In Vitro study showing that the active form of Vitamin D, calcitriol, exhibits significant potent activity against SARS-CoV-2.
6/10
Positive
POSITIVE
Late
Tan et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017 (Peer Reviewed)
oxygen, ↓80.5%, p=0.04 A cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination Vitamin D, Magnesium and Vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients
Observational study of 43 patients >= 50 years old, with 17 patients receiving vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB); and 26 control patients, showing a significantly lower need for oxygen therapy and ICU admission with treatment. ..
4/28
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
De Smet et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.20079376 (Preprint)
cases, ↓23.0%, p=0.0005 Vitamin D deficiency as risk factor for severe COVID-19: a convergence of two pandemics
Retrospective 186 hospitalized patients in Belguim, showing that more than 40% of the adult population is vitamin D deficient, and that vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the risk for hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia and predis..
4/28
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Lau et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838 (Preprint)
ICU, ↓45.0%, p=0.29 Vitamin D Insufficiency is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19
Analysis of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 13 requiring ICU admission. 84.6% of the ICU patients had low vitamin D levels versus 57.1% of the non-ICU patients.
2017
Meta
META
N/A
Martineau et al., BMJ 2017, 356, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
cases, ↓7.3%, p=0.003 Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data
Meta analysis of 25 RCTs showing vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most be..
2013
Meta
META
N/A
Bergman et al., PLoS One, 2013, 8:6, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065835 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Meta analysis of 11 placebo-controlled studies of 5660 patients. Vitamin D showed a protective effect against RTI (OR 0.64 [0.49-0.84]). The protective effect was larger in studies using once-daily dosing compared to bolus doses (OR = 0...
2012
Review
REVIEW
N/A
Palacios et al., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., 2014, 144PA, 138–145, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?
Review showing vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide in all age groups.
2012
Inconc.
INCONC.
Related
Mitchell et al., Endocr Pract., 2012, 18:6, 914–923, doi:10.4158/EP12072.OR (Peer Reviewed) (Related)
Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults
Study of 634 healthy volunteers showing 64% had 25(OH)D ≤ 30 ng/mL. Gender, ethnicity, and multivitamin use were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels.
2010
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP
Urashima et al., Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2010, 91:5, 1255-60, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.29094 (Peer Reviewed)
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren
RCT for vitamin D supplementation and seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren, showing 10.8% incidence in children in the vitamin D3 group compared with 18.6% in the placebo group, relative risk RR 0.58 [0.34-0.99], p = 0.04. The reductio..
2006
Review
REVIEW
N/A
Cannell et al., Epidemiol Infect., 2006, 134:6. 1129-40, doi:10.1017/S0950268806007175 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
Epidemic influenza and vitamin D
Review article on the mechanisms of action and seasonality of vitamin D levels, concluding that varying vitamin D levels may be the reason for the seasonality of epidemic influenza.


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