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HCQ study #124 of 259
8/28 Late treatment study
Fried et al., Clinical Infectious Disease, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1268 (Peer Reviewed)
Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11,721 Patients with COVID19 Hospitalized Across the United States
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Database analysis of 11,721 hospitalized patients, 4,232 on HCQ. Strong evidence for confounding by indication and compassionate use of HCQ. 24.9% of HCQ patients were on mechanical ventilation versus 12.2% control. Ventilation mortality was 70.5% versus 11.6%.
This study does not adjust for the differences in comorbid conditions and disease severity, and therefore does not make a conclusion. Unadjusted HCQ mortality was 24.8% versus control 19.6%. Adjusting for ventilation only gives us 17.7% HCQ versus 19.6% control (adjusting the HCQ group to have the same proportion of ventilation patients), RR 0.90. Hopefully authors can do a full adjustment analysis. Comorbidities may favor control, while patients remaining in the hospital (5.3%) may favor HCQ (other studies show faster resolution for HCQ patients).
Data inconsistencies have been found in this study, for example 99.4% of patients treated with HCQ were treated in urban hospitals, compared to 65% of untreated patients (Supplemental Table 3), while patients are distributed in a more balanced manner between teaching or not-teaching hospitals, as well as in the most urbanized (Northeast) and less urbanized (Midwest) regions of the United States [1].

Fried et al., 8/28/2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
risk of death, 27.0% higher, RR 1.27, p < 0.001, treatment 1048 of 4232 (24.8%), control 1466 of 7489 (19.6%).

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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