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HCQ study #251 of 264
2/5 Late treatment study
Hernandez-Cardenas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.01.21250371 (Preprint)
Hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe respiratory infection by COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial
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Very late stage RCT with 214 patients, mean SpO2 65%, 162 on mechanical ventilation, showing no signficant difference in mortality.
Patients not intubated at baseline show greater improvement, HR 0.43 [0.09-2.03].
Table 4 shows different results to the abstract - table 4 adjusted HR 0.80 [0.51-1.23], abstract HR 0.88 [0.51-1.53]. There was no significant difference in severe adverse events.

Hernandez-Cardenas et al., 2/5/2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Mexico, North America, preprint, 6 authors.
risk of death, 12.0% lower, RR 0.88, p = 0.66, treatment 106, control 108.
risk of death, 57.0% lower, RR 0.43, p = 0.29, subgroup not intubated at baseline.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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