Keyaerts et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, August 2009, 53(8), doi:0.1128/AAC.01509-08 (Peer Reviewed) (not included in the study count) Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine against Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection in Newborn Mice
CQ inhibits HCoV-OC43 replication in HRT-18 cells. A lethal HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn C57BL/6 mice can be treated with CQ acquired transplacentally or via maternal milk. The highest survival rate (98.6%) was found when mother mice were treated daily with a concentration of 15 mg of CQ per kg of body weight. Survival rates declined in a dose-dependent manner, with 88% survival when treated with 5 mg/kg CQ and 13% survival when treated with 1 mg/kg CQ. CQ can be highly effective against HCoV-OC43 infection in newborn mice and may be considered as a future drug against HCoVs.
Keyaerts et al., 1/1/2009, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.