et al., Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, doi:10.1093/ndt/gfaa271 (Peer Reviewed)
Retrospective 1210 hospitalized patients in Turkey focused on chronic kidney disease, haemodialysis and renal transplant patients, but also showing lower mortality with HCQ. Subject to confounding by indication.
Ozturk et al., 12/4/2020, retrospective, Turkey, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 70 authors.
risk of death, 43.9% lower, RR 0.56, p = 0.14, treatment 165 of 1127 (14.6%), control 6 of 23 (26.1%), CQ/HCQ.