et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofaa439.560 (Peer Reviewed)
Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in the USA showing non-statistically significant unadjusted increased mortality with HCQ. Confounding by indication is likely.
Time varying confounding is likely. HCQ became controversial and was suspended towards the end of the period studied, therefore HCQ use was likely more frequent toward the beginning of the study period, a time when overall treatment protocols were significantly worse.
Texeira et al., 12/31/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
risk of death, 79.3% higher, RR 1.79, p = 0.10, treatment 17 of 65 (26.2%), control 14 of 96 (14.6%).