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Treatment
effectiveness
Potential
lives saved
1%
10%
25%
50%
PrEP
100%
PEP
100%
Early
100%
Late
65%
All
81%
  52 studies (31 peer reviewed)
  COVID deaths:
Global HC Q studies. PrEP, PEP, and early treatment studies show high effectiveness, while late treatment shows mixed results.
7/3
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Scholz et al., Preprints 2020, 2020070025, doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0025.v1 (Preprint) COVID-19 Outpatients – Early Risk-Stratified Treatment with Zinc Plus Low Dose Hydroxych loroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Case Series Study
Early treatment with HC Q+AZ+Z results in 84% lower hospitalization and 80% lower death - hospitalization OR 0.16 (p<0.001), death OR 0.2 (p=0.16). No cardiac side effects. Retrospective 518 patients (141 treated, 377 control).
7/1
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Arshad et al. Int. J. Infect. Dis., July 1 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.099 (Peer Reviewed) Treatment with Hydroxych loroquine, Azithromycin, and Combination in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19
HC Q decreases mortality from 26.4% to 13.5% (HC Q) or 20.1% (HC Q+AZ). Propensity matched HC Q HR 0.487, p=0.009. Michigan 2,541 patients retrospective.
6/30
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Mikami et al. J. Gen. Intern. Med., doi:10.1007/s11606-020-05983-z (Peer Reviewed) Risk Factors for Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City
HC Q decreases mortality, HR 0.53 (CI 0.41–0.67). IPTW adjustment does not significantly change HR 0.53 (0.41-0.68). Retrospective 6,000 patients in New York City.
6/29
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP Ferreira et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.26.20056507 (Preprint) Chronic treatment with hydroxych loroquine and SARS-CoV-2 infection
Chronic treatment with HC Q provides protection against COVID, odds ratio 0.51 (0.37-0.70). Note that patients with SLE, RA, and other autoimmune conditions have a significantly increased susceptibility to and incidence of infections, so the actual benefit may be significantly higher [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7].
6/25
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Lagier et al. Travel Med. Infect. Dis. 101791, Jun 25, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101791 (Peer Reviewed) Outcomes of 3,737 COVID-19 patients treated with hydroxych loroquine/azithromycin and other regimens in Marseille, France: A retrospective analysis
Early treatment leads to significantly better clinical outcome and faster viral load reduction. Matched sample mortality HR 0.41 p-value 0.048. Retrospective 3,737 patients.
6/22
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Chen et al. medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.19.20136093 (Preprint) Efficacy and safety of ch loroquine or hydroxych loroquine in moderate type of COVID-19: a prospective open-label randomized controlled study
Significantly faster clinical recovery and shorter time to RNA negative (from 7.0 days to 2.0 days (HC Q), p=0.01. 67 patients with mild/moderate cases.
6/19
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
PrEP SMSH Sawai Man Singh Hospital, India (News) (not included in the study count) HC Q beneficial as preventive drug: SMS doctors told ICMR
PrEP with 4,300 very high risk healthcare workers in a hospital with up to 500+ COVID patients at a time, only 1% cases, all recovered.
6/19
Negative
(news)
NEGATIVE
Late N/A: study not available yet (News) (not included in the study count) NIH halts clinical trial of hydroxych loroquine
NIH halts late stage trial reporting no harm and no benefit. 470 patients.
6/19
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Sbidian et al. medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.16.20132597 (Preprint) Hydroxych loroquine with or without azithromycin and in-hospital mortality or discharge in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection: a cohort study of 4,642 in-patients in France
Retrospective of 4,642 hospitalized patients in France showing significantly faster discharge with HC Q and HC Q+AZ. No significant effect is seen on 28-day mortality, however many more control patients are still in hospital at 28 days suggesting there will be a significant improvement when extending past 28 days. Other issues see [1].
6/17
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Xue et al. J. Med. Virology (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxych loroquine treatment in COVID-19: a descriptive observational analysis of 30 cases from a single center in Wuhan, China
30 hospitalized patients. Early use of HC Q is more effective, 43% reduction in progression from moderate to severe. "Early" is relative here, within 7 days of hospitalization.
6/16
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
PrEP WHIP COVID-19 (News) (not included in the study count) Henry Ford Health System still moving forward with hydroxych loroquine study
Ongoing WHIP COVID-19 HC Q PrEP study reports analyzing their data and seeing a significantly improved outcome in a group of COVID-19 patients who received HC Q. For more details on the study see [1].
6/12
Theory
THEORY
Theory Scherrmann, AAPS J 22, 86 (2020). doi:10.1208/s12248-020-00465-w (Peer Reviewed) (Theory) (not included in the study count) Intracellular ABCB1 as a Possible Mechanism to Explain the Synergistic Effect of Hydroxych loroquine-Azithromycin Combination in COVID-19 Therapy
Proposes a new mechanism supporting the synergistic interaction between HC Q+AZ.
6/10
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Otea et al. medRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.06.10.20101105 (Preprint) A short therapeutic regimen based on hydroxych loroquine plus azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 in patients with non-severe disease. A strategy associated with a reduction in hospital admissions and complications.
80 moderate cases, HC Q+AZ appears to reduce serious complications and death. Moderate treated cases resulted in hospitalization at the same rate as mild untreated cases suggesting efficacy.
6/9
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Pirnay et al. Hosp. Pharm. and Clinician, doi:10.1016/j.phclin.2020.06.001 (Peer Reviewed) Beneficial effect of Hydroxych loroquine-Azithromycin combination in the treatment of elderly patients with Covid-19: results of an observational study
68 very high risk nursing home residents, median age 86, HC Q+AZ early treatment within 2.5 days onset, 2 stopped due to QTc. Only 7 died, significantly less than other nursing homes in France and the same as the median death for the same period in 2019/2018.
6/9
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP Bhattacharya et al. medRxix doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20116806 (Preprint) Pre exposure Hydroxych loroquine use is associated with reduced COVID19 risk in healthcare workers
HC Q reduced cases from 38% to 7%. 106 people. No serious adverse effects.
6/6
Positive
(meta)
POSITIVE
Early, Late Million et al. New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100709 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Clinical Efficacy of Ch loroquine derivatives in COVID-19 Infection: Comparative metaanalysis between the Big data and the real world
[H]C Q effective and reduces mortality by a factor 3. Meta analysis of 20 studies.
6/5
Negative
(news)
NEGATIVE
Late N/A: study not available yet (News) (not included in the study count) No clinical benefit from use of hydroxych loroquine in hospitalised patients with COVID-19
RECOVERY trial reports no significant benefit seen for very late stage very sick patients. Extremely high dosage [1, 2]. Extremely sick patients (average of 9 days post symptoms, 60% requiring oxygen and an additional 17% requiring ventilation/ECMO) and unusually high death rate in both arms.
6/3
Positive
POSITIVE
PEP Boulware et al., NEJM, June 3 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2016638 (Peer Reviewed) A Randomized Trial of Hydroxych loroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19
COVID reduced by [49%, 29%, 16%] when taken within [2+, 3+, 4+] days of exposure. Very unlikely that the observed benefit and treatment delay-response relationship is due to chance, see [1]. PEP 2+ day delay RCT. See also [2].
5/31
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Guérin et al. Preprints 2020, 2020050486 doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0486.v1 (Preprint) Azithromycin and Hydroxych loroquine Accelerate Recovery of Outpatients with Mild/Moderate COVID-19
Mean recovery time reduced from 26 days to 9 days (HC Q+AZ) or 13 days (AZ). 88 patients. No cardiac toxicity.
5/29
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Ayerbe et al. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02162-z (Peer Reviewed) The association between treatment with heparin and survival in patients with Covid-19
2075 hospital patients in Spain. HC Q reduces mortality from 30% to 13%. Not adjusted for age and gender. HC Q group 10% more males and 6 years younger. Study primarily interested in Heparin.
5/28
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Chamieh et al., medRxiv 2020.05.28.20114835; doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.20114835 (Preprint) Viral Dynamics Matter in COVID-19 Pneumonia: the success of early treatment with hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin in Lebanon
HC Q+AZ potentially explains 94.7% success in treating a fairly complex cohort.
5/28
Positive
POSITIVE
PrEP Chatterjee et al. Indian J Med Res (Peer Reviewed) Healthcare workers & SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: A case-control investigation in the time of COVID-19
4+ doses of HC Q associated with a significant decline in the odds of getting infected, dose-response relationship exists.
5/28
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Huang et al. National Science Review, nwaa113, doi:10.1093/nsr/nwaa113 (Peer Reviewed) Preliminary evidence from a multicenter prospective observational study of the safety and efficacy of ch loroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
197 C Q patients, 176 control. Mean time to undetectable viral RNA and duration of fever significantly reduced. No serious adverse events.
5/27
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Risch, American Journal of Epidemiology, kwaa093, 27 May 2020 doi:10.1093/aje/kwaa093 (Peer Reviewed) Early Outpatient Treatment of Symptomatic, High-Risk Covid-19 Patients that Should be Ramped-Up Immediately as Key to the Pandemic Crisis
Five studies, including two controlled clinical trials, have demonstrated significant outpatient treatment efficacy.
5/27
Positive
POSITIVE
Early IHU Marseille (Preprint) Early diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients: a real-life cohort study of 3,737 patients, Marseille, France
Early treatment with 3+ days HC Q+AZ results in a significantly better clinical outcome and contagiosity.
5/22
Positive
(advisory)
POSITIVE
PEP, PrEP ICMR Indian Council of Medical Research (Advisory) (not included in the study count) Revised advisory on the use of Hydroxych loroquine (HC Q) as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection
Healthcare workers on HC Q prophylaxis less likely to get COVID. Significant dose-response relationship. Extends recommended HC Q prophylaxis to asymptomatic household contacts of cases and frontline workers. Degree of benefit not quantified.
5/22
Retracted
RETRACTED
Late Mehra et al. The Lancet, May 22, 2020 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31180-6 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxych loroquine or ch loroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis
Incorrect at first read (implausible death, ventilation, and population numbers). This paper was retracted.
5/20
Negative
(meta)
NEGATIVE
Late Chacko et al. medRxiv 2020.05.14.20101774; doi:10.1101/2020.05.14.20101774 (Preprint) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Hydroxych loroquine in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Meta analysis of Chen, Tang, Zhaowei, Barbosa, Guatret, Geleris, Magagnoli, Mahevas, Mallat, Rosenberg, Yu et al. studies not seeing a significant effect other than time to resolution of chest CT. Limited by heterogeneous nature of studies, baseline severity varied, most studies have a small sample size, endpoints reported at varying times, dosage varied, and AZ, Zinc are not considered.
5/18
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Kim et al. medRxiv 2020.05.13.20094193; doi:10.1101/2020.05.13.20094193 (Preprint) Treatment Response to Hydroxych loroquine, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, and Antibiotics for Moderate COVID 19: A First Report on the Pharmacological Outcomes from South Korea
Retrospective of 97 moderate cases. Time to viral clearance significantly shorter for HC Q+antibiotic.
5/18
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Ahmad et al. doi:10.1101/2020.05.18.20066902 (Preprint) Doxycycline and Hydroxych loroquine as Treatment for High-Risk COVID-19 Patients: Experience from Case Series of 54 Patients in Long-Term Care Facilities
54 patients in long term care facilities. 6% death with HC Q+AZ compared to 22% using a naive indirect comparison.
5/15
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Yu et al. Sci China Life Sci. 2020 May 15;1-7. doi: 10.1007/s11427-020-1732-2 (Peer Reviewed) Low Dose of Hydroxych loroquine Reduces Fatality of Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19
Retrospective, 550 critically ill patients. 19% fatality for HC Q versus 47% for non-HC Q.
5/14
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Mahévas et al., BMJ 2020 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1844 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical efficacy of hydroxych loroquine in patients with covid-19 pneumonia who require oxygen: observational comparative study using routine care data
Observational study of 181 patients with advanced disease requiring oxygen showing no benefit for HC Q. Power of study appears too low to support conclusions [1]. None of the 15 patients receiving HC Q+AZ were transferred to intensive care or died compared to 23% overall.
5/11
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Davido et al. medRxiv preprint doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.2008875 (Preprint) Hydroxych loroquine plus azithromycin: a potential interest in reducing in2 hospital morbidity due to COVID-19 pneumonia (HI-ZY-COVID)?
Retrospective of 132 hospitalized patients. HC Q+AZ significantly reduces death. Preprint removed pending peer review.
5/11
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Rosenberg et al. JAMA, May 11, 2020, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8630 (Peer Reviewed) Association of Treatment With Hydroxych loroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State
Restrospective observational late stage study showing no significant differences but calling for clinical trials.
5/8
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Carlucci et al. doi: 10.1101/2020.05.02.20080036 (Preprint) Hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Observational retrospective. Addition of Zinc to HC Q+AZ reduces mortality.
5/7
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Derendorf, Int. J. Antimicrobial Agents, 7 May 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106007 (Peer Reviewed) Excessive lysosomal ion-trapping of hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin
Discusses pharmacokinetic properties of HC Q+AZ as a potential underlying mechanism of the observed antiviral effects.
5/7
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Geleris et al. NEJM, May 7, 2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2012410 (Peer Reviewed) Observational Study of Hydroxych loroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19
Observational study of 1446 hospitalized patients. No significant effect on a combined intubation/death outcome for late treatment. RCT recommended. No AZ or Zinc. HC Q group much sicker - patients already in mild/moderate ARDS, most of the control group not in ARDS. However, secondary analysis shows the success of HC Q was hidden by combining intubation and death - death / (combined death/intubation) for HC Q was 157 / 262 (60%) vs. control 75 / 84 (89%), for details see: [1]. Control cases received other therapeutics.
5/7
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
N/A Sermo (News) (not included in the study count) Sermo reports: COVID-19 treatment trends over 6 weeks and 33,700 interviews: Usage, efficacy and safety perceptions of most-used therapies
HC Q used by 55% of physicians worldwide for COVID. Survey of 6,150 physicians.
5/5
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Membrillo de Novales et al. Preprints 2020, 2020050057 doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0057.v1 (Preprint) Early Hydroxych loroquine Is Associated with an Increase of Survival in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study
166 patients hospitalised with COVID, HC Q increased survival 1.4 - 1.8 times when patients admitted in early stages. Early is relative to hospital admission here - all patients relatively serious condition.
5/5
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Million et al. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 5;101738. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101738 (Peer Reviewed) Early Treatment of COVID-19 Patients With Hydroxych loroquine and Azithromycin: A Retrospective Analysis of 1061 Cases in Marseille, France
Retrospective 1061 patients. HC Q+AZ safe and results in a low fatality rate.
5/2
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
Late Seydi (News) (not included in the study count) Coronavirus: a study in Senegal confirms the effectiveness of hydroxych loroquine
Preliminary results of Senegal trial with 181 patients showing faster recovery with HC Q, and even faster recovery with HC Q+AZ.
4/30
Positive
(meta)
POSITIVE
Early Meo et al. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020; 24 (8): 4539-4547, doi:10.26355/eurrev_202004_21038 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) Efficacy of ch loroquine and hydroxych loroquine in the treatment of COVID-19
Review of 9 articles supporting the efficacy of HC Q and C Q.
4/29
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Saleh et al. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008662 (Peer Reviewed) The Effect of Ch loroquine, Hydroxych loroquine and Azithromycin on the Corrected QT Interval in Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
201 hospitalized patients. No serious side effects of HC Q.
4/24
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Ashraf et al. medRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.04.20.20072421.t (Preprint) COVID-19 in Iran, a comprehensive investigation from exposure to treatment outcomes
100 patients. HC Q improved clinical outcome.
4/21
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Magagnoli et al. (Preprint) Outcomes of hydroxych loroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19
Retrospective 368 hospitalized patients. Risk of death increased for HC Q alone but not for HC Q+AZ. No Zinc. Study notes HC Q was more likely to be prescribed to patients with more severe disease.
4/17
Positive
POSITIVE
PEP Lee at al. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Apr 17;105988. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105988 (Peer Reviewed) Can Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 Be Considered as an Outbreak Response Strategy in Long-Term Care Hospitals?
Post exposure prophylaxis of 211 people after major exposure event in LTCH, 0 positive for COVID after 14 days.
4/16
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Borba et al. JAMA Network Open doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8857 (Peer Reviewed) Ch loroquine diphosphate in two different dosages as adjunctive therapy of hospitalized patients with severe respiratory syndrome in the context of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection: Preliminary safety results of a randomized, double-blinded, phase IIb clinical trial (CloroCovid-19 Study)
Increased incidence of prolonged QT and death in high dose treatment arm. Patients >75 only enrolled in high dose arm, age of high dose arm significantly higher than low dose arm (p=0.02). Very sick at baseline, 43% in ICU, 88.9% on respiratory therapy prior to treatment.
4/15
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Esper et al. Prevent Senior Institute, São Paulo, Brazil (Preprint) Empirical treatment with hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin for suspected cases of COVID-19 followed-up by telemedicine
636 patients. HC Q+AZ reduced hospitalization 79% when used within 7 days (65% overall). Non-randomized.
4/14
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Tang et al. medRxiv preprint doi:10.1101/2020.04.10.20060558 (Preprint) Hydroxych loroquine in patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial
150 patients very late stage RCT. No significant difference. More symptomatic relief with HC Q. No safety concerns of HC Q. Treatment very late, average 16.6 days after symptom onset. Data favorable to HC Q was deleted in the second version, see forensic analysis [1].
4/13
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Gao et al. Biosci Trends, 2020 May 21;14(2):156-158. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.03072. Epub 2020 Apr 13 (Peer Reviewed) Update on Use of Ch loroquine/Hydroxych loroquine to Treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Increasing evidence from completed clinical studies shows C Q and HC Q effective (HC Q more effective).
4/11
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Gautret et al. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101663 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical and microbiological effect of a combination of hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin in 80 COVID-19 patients with at least a six-day follow up: A pilot observational study
Pilot study suggesting improvement with HC Q+AZ and recommending further study.
4/1
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Huang et al. Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, Volume 12, Issue 4, April 2020, Pages 322–325, doi:10.1093/jmcb/mjaa014 (Peer Reviewed) Treating COVID-19 with Ch loroquine
22 patients. All C Q patients discharged by day 14 versus 50% of Lopinavir/Rotinavir patients. Symptom onset to treatment 2.5 days for C Q vs. 6.5 days for Lopinavir/Rotinavir.
3/31
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Chen et al. medRxiv doi:10.1101/2020.03.22.20040758 (Preprint) Efficacy of hydroxych loroquine in patients with COVID-19: results of a randomized clinical trial
62 patients. RCT showing significantly faster recovery with HC Q.
3/28
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Molina et al. (Preprint) No evidence of rapid antiviral clearance or clinical benefit with the combination of hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin in patients with severe COVID-19 infection
11 patients with severe cases. No evidence of benefit for HC Q.
3/26
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
Late Zhong Nanshan (News) (not included in the study count) Efficacy and safety of ch loroquine for treatment of COVID-19. An open-label, multi-center, non-randomized trial
197 patients. HC Q effective. Viral RNA negative in 95.9% versus 79.6% control. Median time to negative tests 3 days versus 9 days for control.
3/24
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Pagliano et al. Clin Infect Dis, 2020 Mar 24; ciaa320. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa320 (Peer Reviewed) Is Hydroxych loroquine a Possible Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Drug to Limit the Transmission to Health Care Workers Exposed to COVID19?
C Q and HC Q inhibit replication at early stages of infection, no similar effect reported for other drugs which are only able to interfere after cell infection. Large volume of existing data on safety.
3/21
Positive
(advisory)
POSITIVE
PrEP ICMR Indian Council of Medical Research (Advisory) (not included in the study count) Advisory on the use of hydroxy-ch loroquine as prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection
Recommends HC Q for prophylaxis in asymptomatic healthcare workers as found effective in-vitro and in-vivo.
3/20
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
Late Hu et al., Shanghai Combined Task Force on COVID-19 (News) (not included in the study count) Shanghai Experience of COVID-19 Management
Clinical studies of HC Q with 184 cases and 21 hospitals show HC Q is effective.
3/18
In Vitro
INVITRO
In Vitro Liu et al. Cell Discov 6, 16 (2020). doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Hydroxych loroquine, a less toxic derivative of ch loroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro
HC Q effective in vitro and less toxic than C Q.
3/17
Positive
POSITIVE
Early Gautret et al. Int. J. of Antimicrobial Agents, 17 March 2020, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxych loroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an openlabel non-randomized clinical trial
HC Q significantly associated with viral load reduction / elimination, enhanced with AZ.
3/13
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Todaro and Rigano (Preprint) An Effective Treatment for Coronavirus (COVID-19)
C Q found effective in South Korea and China, recommending use.
3/12
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Devaux et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938 (Peer Reviewed) New insights on the antiviral effects of ch loroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?
Discusses mechanisms of C Q interference with SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
3/10
Positive
(meta)
POSITIVE
N/A Cortegiani et al. J Crit Care, 2020 Jun;57:279-283. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005 Epub 2020 Mar 10 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis - not included in the study count) A Systematic Review on the Efficacy and Safety of Ch loroquine for the Treatment of COVID-19
Review of six articles and 23 ongoing clinical trials in China recommending research and clinical use adhering to MEURI.
3/9
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Yao et al., Clin. Infect. Dis. 2020 Mar 9, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237 (Peer Reviewed) In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxych loroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
HC Q more potent than C Q in vitro.
3/6
Negative
NEGATIVE
Late Chen et al., J. Zhejiang University (Med Sci), doi:10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.03.03 (Peer Reviewed) A pilot study of hydroxych loroquine in treatment of patients with common coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)
30 moderate hospitalized cases, all recovered. Time to RNA negative comparable. Less frequent radiological progression with HC Q but not statistically significant. One HC Q patient developed to a severe case. Treatment group 4 years older and with higher incidence of hypertension.
3/4
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Colson et al., Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105932. Epub 2020 Mar 4. (Peer Reviewed) Ch loroquine and Hydroxych loroquine as Available Weapons to Fight COVID-19
Recommending C Q and HC Q for COVID based on 20 clinical studies in China and strong rationale for use.
2/20
Positive
POSITIVE
N/A Jiang et al., Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2020,43 doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0019 (Peer Reviewed) Expert Consensus on Ch loroquine Phosphate for the Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia
C Q is an effective treatment for COVID.
2/19
Positive
POSITIVE
Late Gao et al. BioScience Trends, 2020, doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047 (Peer Reviewed) Breakthrough: Ch loroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies
Results from 15 clinical trials in China show C Q is effective.
2/17
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
Late Sun Yanrong, deputy head of the China National Center for Biotechnology Development (News) (not included in the study count) Antimalarial drug confirmed effective on COVID-19
HC Q under clinical trials in >10 hospitals in China and has shown fairly good efficacy.
2/4
In Vitro
INVITRO
In Vitro Wang et al. Cell Res 30, 269–271. doi:L10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Remdesivir and ch loroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro
In vitro study, not included in the study count or percentages. Remdesivir and C Q potently blocked virus infection in vitro.
2005
In Vitro
INVITRO
In Vitro Vincent et al. Virol J 2, 69 (2005). doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-69 (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) Ch loroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread
In vitro study, SARS-CoV-1, not included in the study count or percentages. C Q has strong antiviral effects on SARS CoV infection when cells treated either before or after exposure, suggesting prophylactic and treatment use. Describes three mechanisms by which the drug might work and suggests it may have both a prophylactic and therapeutic role in Coronavirus infections.
2004
In Vitro
INVITRO
In Vitro Keyaerts et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 323:1, 8 October 2004, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) (not included in the study count) In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by ch loroquine
In vitro study, SARS-CoV-1, not included in the study count or percentages. IC50 of C Q for antiviral activity (8.8) significantly lower than cytostatic activity CC50 (261.3), selectivity index of 30. IC50 for inhibition of SARS-CoV in vitro approximates plasma concentrations of C Q reached during treatment of acute malaria. C Q may be considered for immediate use in the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV infections.
1896
Positive
(news)
POSITIVE
N/A Edwin Wiley Grove (News) (not included in the study count) Laxative Bromo Quinine
Quinine has been used for respiratory infections since 1896. Not included in the study count or percentages, just as an interesting observation.

Note: In Vitro, Meta, Theory, and News items are not included in the percentages and study count. There is a total of 73 items.

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